Ladies Health Check

    Human Papillomavirus(HPV)

    Why Human Papillomarvirus (HPV) … 

    Very common – About 75% people who with sexual experience was infected?

    Cannot prevent even using condom?

    Easily get infected – only one or fixed sex partner, still got a chance to be infected?

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a type of virus transmit through skin-to-skin genital contact or sexual contact are the mode of transmission. About 40 types HPV can infect male and female genital organ. Different types of HPV can cause different diseases and we categorize HPV as high risk and low risk types, according to their relation with cervical cancer.

    Protection of Male/Partners

    HPV will infect men also and lead to anal cancer and genital warts. Through sexual intercourse, men will make their sex partner continuously contact human papillomarvirus and infected by HPV sickness. Male can do HPV vaccine injection to prevent HPV and avoid continuously HPV infection.

    How female know are they infected by HPV?

    HPV DNA test can identify infected HPV; pap smear is a screening test for cervical cancer and precancerous lesion.



    **Human papillomarvirus can transmit to new born baby through mother’s vaginal. It is difficult to cure.

    **Source from Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.

    Types of HPV
    Low risk (Do not cause cancer)High risk (Can cause cancer)
    Common Types:
    6, 11, 40, 42, 43, 44, 54, 61, 72, 81
    Common Types:
    16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68, 82
    →Lead to genital warts (Around 90% reproductive organ genital warts lead by HPV 6 & HPV 11)

    →Low risk HPV may clear on its own immune system
    →Lead to precancerous lesion, cervical cancer & genital organ cancer cover 70% cervical cancer is by HPV16 & HPV18

    →Need doctor diagnostic & treatment, otherwise, it will progress to cancer.

    The cervix is the lowermost part of the uterus. It extends slightly into the vagina. Cervical cancer starts in the cells lining the cervix – the lower part of the uterus (womb). The cervix connects the body of the uterus to the vagina.

    The cervix is a cylinder-shaped neck of tissue that connects the vagina and uterus. Located at the lowermost portion of the uterus.

    High risk types of HPV are now known to be the cause of most cases of cervical cancer. They invade the cells in the cervix, resulting in abnormal cell changes  and may lead to cervical cancer.

    Some types of the HPV are transmitted through intimate sexual contact. It was shown in overseas studies that up to 70% of all sexually active women have been infected by HPV sometimes in their lives. Most people with HPV infection will have no symptoms and will clear the infection on their own. Some females with persistent high-risk HPV infection in the cervix will develop pre-cancerous cell changes. While the majority of these changes will regress to normal, some may progress to cancer over years.

    Precancerous lesion of cervical cancer will not have obvious symptoms. Women need pelvis check-up or cervical cell check-up. Obvious symptoms as following:

    • Irregular bleeding (vaginal bleeding starts or stop between period)
    • Bleeding after sexual intercourse, vaginal lavage or pelvis examination
    • Longer menstrual period than usual, and increase in menstrual blood
    • Bleeding after menopause
    • Increase vaginal discharge

    Who need check-up?

    1. women between 25-46 who ever had sex
    2. Recently, younger-onset below aged 25 and who had sexual intercourse in early ages
    3. Have multiple sexual partners

    *Regular pap smear and HPV DNA test serves early detection of Cervical Intra-epithelial Neoplasia, to prevent cervical cancer.

    Prevent Cervical Cancer
    1. Pap Smear Test2. Human Papillomarvirus DNA Test3. (HPV)疫苗
    HPV Vaccine
    Pap smear is a simple and quick check-up method.
    A small piece of wooden spatula or plastic brush will then be inserted through the speculum to obtain some cells sample from the surface of the cervix.

    The cervical smear is a very safe test that only takes a few minutes.
    HPV DNA test can carry out at the same time of doing pap smear.
    HPV DNA test can identify any HPV infection, and categorize the infected HPV is high risk or low risk types.
    The vaccines currently available are most effective for women who have never been infected with the HPV 16 and HPV 18 viruses. According to current data, this vaccine can prevent pre-cancerous lesions (Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia) caused by HPV 16 and HPV 18 infections.
    Women who have received HPV vaccination still need regular cervical cancer screening.
    HPV DNA Test and pap smear test can complement one and other to reduce wrong judgement and ambiguous result. HPV DNATest and pap smear can carry out at the same time to increase the sensitivity and accuracy, will be more effective to prevent cervical cancer。HPV Vaccines

    Pelvic Ultrasound

    Ultrasound Screening is non-invasive, cause no harm and pain to human. It has no radiation and without use of contrast media.

    Pelvic ultrasound can gives an image of cervical and ovary’s size, position, shape and early detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    The incidence rate of gynecological disease increases with increasing age of women. Women should have regular check-up to prevent sickness.


    A pelvic ultrasound examination is recommended every six months to one year if:

    1. Frequent urination or urge to urinate frequently.
    2. Lumps or bulge was found in lower abdomen when palpation.
    3. Abnormal vaginal bleeding, excessive menstrual bleeding or menstrual pain.
    4. Suffer from uterine fibroid, uterine fibromyoma or ovarian cysts.
    5. Failure to confirm the intrauterine device (IUD) is in situ.


    Pelvic Ultrasound Screening Reminder:

    • Do not carry out during menstruation. It will be more appropriate a week after menstruation
    • Please intake 750ml – 1000ml water before half or an hour before pelvis ultrasound screening. No voiding (going to the bathroom) and your bladder must be uncomfortably full for this exam. Fluid in the bladder optimizes image of the desired anatomy as the bladder serves an imaging window.

    Breast Examination

    Women aged 40 or above

    Should carry mammogram once every 2 years. If mammogram image show abnormality, need ultrasound for further examination


    Women aged below 40

    Breast ultrasound is suggested for screening dense breast tissue. Unformed tumor – calcification point –  only can detected by mammogram

    • The newest generation of breast imaging
    • FDA approved
    • The breast is imaged at different angles to minimize the effect of overlap and thus raising the detection rate.